Based on the things you told us about investing, my husband and I started putting £125 per month each into our SIPP pension. I hope this isn’t a silly question but what are these savings for? When can we expect to start spending that money and should we try to spend it in specific ways or on specific things? Both my husband and I are 30, we don’t plan on having children and our jobs have fixed pension benefits.
That’s a great question. While everyone has a different value system, there are two main reasons that I strongly recommend that people put money into a self-invested pension plan or SIPP a) flexibility and b) security including funds to help pay a mortgage off early.
A SIPP can be better than a stocks and shares ISA, in some cases, because you effectively pay less tax and because you can’t use the money until you are about 58 so it forces you to save.
Let’s talk about each reason in turn:
The first reason: is flexibility over when to retire
In the past, a lot of work-based pensions (aka defined benefit pension plans) used to allow early retirement from between the ages of 55 and 60, most of these type of scheme are being completely phased out and are instead being linked to the state retirement age which for you is currently expected to be 68. There is talk of moving this to age 70, so this is a future possibility.
Whatever happens, the funds that you build up in your SIPP can be taken from 10 years before the state retirement age. This means if the state retirement age moves to 70 you will still be able to use money that’s sitting in your SIPP from the age of 60.
If you and your husband are putting £125 each into a SIPP then when you are 55 years old, you and your husband’s combined pot of savings would be worth £135,000 if the pot of money only grows fast enough to keep up with inflation of about 3%; if you get growth equivalent to the average stock market return of 7% then you would have £250,000 at the age of 55 and if you get an average stock market return of 10% you would have £410,000 saved up.
At age 60 the figures would be £180,000 @ 3%, £375,000 @ 7% and £700,000 @ 10%.
These sort of returns aren’t cuckoo. According thebalance.com, “the S&P 500 Index, delivered its worst twenty-year return of 6.4% a year over the twenty years ending in May 1979. The best twenty-year return of 18% a year occurred over the twenty years ending in March 2000.”
Various sources suggest the S&P 500 has returned 10% before inflation if you buy and hold the money you invest into it. But of course, it’s useful to remember that this past success doesn’t guarantee that future returns will be as good.
Right now you would struggle to find a bank account that gives you an interest rate of 1.5%.
Back to flexibility on when you retire, however, unless you believe the US has no room for growth, then this total of £250/month you are saving could amount to a lot of money over a 25 to 30 year period and this would allow you to retire with a decent income well before the state retirement age.
If your mortgage is fully paid off by the time you retire then your cost of living could be low enough that even a modest growth in the SIPP would provide a comfortable income before your state pensions and work-place pensions kick in.
The second reason: to save the money is the added security from having extra retirement income
Having money in a SIPP means you can top up your retirement income.
Having the SIPP would mean you have 5 sources of income:
If the pension income from your jobs is lower than your final salary having access to extra funds will mean you can more or less maintain your lifestyle. This will be especially important if one person lives a lot longer than the other.
There is one special feature that the SIPP has but all the other 4 pensions do not: and that’s the fact that if you or your husband dies the state pension stops coming through and the work-place pension either stops completely or is massively reduced. However, whatever money is outstanding in the SIPP would fully transfer to the spouse without penalty.
Just to be clear, I will make that point twice: a work-place pension either dies with the person and at that point the spouse receives nothing or, from that point, the spouse gets a heavily reduced benefit – usually 50% of one-third of the amount that was being received before their spouse died.
A LOT OF PEOPLE forget this about SIPPs and other defined contribution pensions. I won’t go into the differences between defined benefit and defined contribution pension plans here but if someone is interested go to themoneyspot.co.uk and leave me a voicemail with your request.
Finally, when can you expect to start spending that money and should you try to spend it in specific ways or on specific things?
Technically, the plan is that you will never have to spend the capital but can just spend the growth.
If the fund is worth £250,000 when you start drawing from it and you are earning a 10% return per year at that point, then you could just withdraw the 10% (i.e. £25,000) or less and spend that.
If your withdrawal rate is lower than the growth rate of the fund then your retirement would continue to grow even as you take money out.
Note that some research suggests that the ideal withdrawal rate to maximise the likelihood that the money will never run out is 4%. But given you have pension income from your jobs in addition to the state retirement and you’re not worried about passing wealth on to children you could be more aggressive than this.
As for how you spend that money, well that is up to you and is a great problem to have. Having more money doesn’t only mean more holidays, it also means you can buy private health insurance which might be a necessity to avoid NHS waiting lists at a time when health problems are more likely. This would give you a lot of peace of mind.
Ability to pay mortgage off early
One thing worth adding, is a note that once you can withdraw money from your SIPP you are allowed to take 25% out as a tax-free lump sum. If your household had £250,000 saved up, you could take £62,500 out in one go which could be used to clear all or most of your mortgage.
You would then be allowed to take the rest out as an income or you could buy an annuity – with an annuity you essentially buy a fixed income which keeps being paid to you for the rest of your life.
I wouldn’t recommend an annuity for you given you have two fixed pensions coming in already, you don’t need the extra security and annuities don’t tend to be worth the money now that interest rates are so low. What you could do instead of buying an annuity is withdraw what you need from the SIPP every year. You would pay taxes based only on what you take out and could manage the withdrawals to minimise the tax bill.
I hope this helps.
Have a money question?
I just had my first baby. I'm 31 and married. Do you have any tips for how I can think about saving and investing for my baby?
This is an awesome time to be asking me this question. I also started planning for my first baby as soon as he was born.
You will be at an advantage if you start saving and investing for your children as soon as they are born. You will need to balance what you can afford with what you want to achieve for them. Firstly, what’s the goal? What are you saving for?
University costs c.£60,000 in tuition and living costs for a 3 year course at the moment - £10,000 for tuition and books, £10,000 for living – living costs can be higher or lower depending on whether you live at home, etc..
£60,000 is a huge amount of money and this cost is likely to rise in the future but it makes the maths too complicated to think about possible cost increases.
Option 1 for university savings
If you can save £20,000 in a tax-free account like a stocks and shares ISA by the time your child is 5 years old, then you can stop putting money aside and this money will have a reasonable chance of growing to £60,000 by the time your child is 18 years old.
How could you save this £4,000 per year? Perhaps you could target saving a round amount like £250 per month (equivalent to just over £30/week each for a two-income family) and because this sums to £3,000 a year, at the end of the financial year you’d hustle to throw that extra £1,000 into the ISA before the financial year closes on 5 April. Or, if you can afford it, you could just save £335/month and you would save just over £4,000/year.
Option 2 for university savings
£4,000 is likely more than most can afford. The alternative is to save £100/month until age 18 which most people can afford even on the median household disposable income of £29,400 (2019). It’s equivalent to about £12.50/week each for a two-income family).
Which option is better?
I would say option 1 trumps option 2 because you give the money the best chance of growing. Equity markets are volatile in the short-run so by saving the money early you give the money a better chance of reaching your goal. That said, something is a lot better than nothing: small savings add up to large amounts over time. Your savings may be lower than you would like to target but you will still help your children avoid the full scourge of student debt.
These are the results under each option:
Caveats on saving through a Junior ISA:
When you save the money through a Junior ISA, that money will be theirs when they hit 18 and you might not be able to control how they spend it.
However, putting it into the Junior ISA means you won’t be tempted to spend it yourself because once the money goes in, it can’t be withdrawn until your child is 18.
How can you avoid the Junior ISA so you have more control over the money?
Plan b. is a good option because you could end up not having to pay tax anyway:
The capital gains tax allowance in 2019-20 is £12,000. That is, you have to make a capital gain (the profit on your investment) bigger than this to pay the tax. If you save the £4,000 across two investment accounts - £2,000 in an investment account with your name and £2,000 in an investment account with your spouse’s name then when your child is 18 you can sell enough stock each year to keep the capital gain below the capital gains tax allowance.
The risk however is that this threshold could fall or be completely removed in which case you would end up paying more capital gains tax on the sale. It’s still a sensible option, despite this risk.
If you followed option 1 for university savings, at age 5 you’ll have stopped doing that and might find that you have some spare money to open a retirement account.
Your children will not have access to this money until they are 57 to 60 but if life hasn’t worked this will be a great cushion for them.
The beauty of investing in a retirement account is that for every £1 you put in the government puts in an extra 100/80. That is, if you want to save £100/month you only need to put £80 into the account. If you do invest £100 it will be £125/month with the government top up. For kids you can put a maximum of £2,880/year (£240/month) which equals £3,600/year.
This is the result if you choose to save £100/month indefinitely into your child’s Self-Invested Pension Plan or SIPP starting from when they are 5-years old:
You notice that the extra £25 from the government makes a real difference. By saving through the pension, based on a 7% return, on 7-Jan-2025 the investments are worth £9,269 rather than only £7,444 without the government top-up.
Don’t save into a child’s retirement account unless you have the cash flow and are meeting your own goals, e.g. paying enough into your own retirement, paying off your mortgage early and ideally, are debt free yourself (apart from the mortgage).
Some will be able to afford the full £240/month from birth, the rest of us have to work out what is realistic, that is why I personally opted for the £100/month from age 5. This decision will change with a change in your fortunes.
3. HELPING YOUR KIDS BUY A HOME
This is where the decisions get a little tricky. Some people will be able to afford funding university, helping their children get ahead with retirement savings and help with a deposit on a home without compromising their lifestyle at all but the rest of us need to make choices.
Private school vs. saving for a home
What will make the biggest difference to your children: a private education or getting onto the property ladder?
If you can afford one or the other but not both, then you might follow the route of private primary school followed by state secondary school (grammar/comprehensive). In this case you’d direct all the money you would have spent on a private secondary school education on saving for a home. In some cases this might mean your child starts life with a mortgage free home.
If you save £15,000/year (£1,250/month) from age 11 until age 21 (10 years of saving) and it grows at an average rate of 7%, how much money would your child have at 21? About £220,00 – increasing to £260,000 if the average return over that period is 10%.
This is not small money to most of us.
You could use every last cent on a private education when at the end of the day the thing that helps your child follow a life of fulfilment is being relatively debt free.
If you decide to go for a state education throughout and save £1,000/month (£12,000/year) from age 5 (when you are done with university saving) until age 21 (16 years of saving) and it grows at an average rate of 7%, how much money would your child have at 21? About £355,000 – increasing to £475,000 if the average return over that period is 10%, wow. Forget the children, you could be doing this for yourself!
If you have already made the decision to send your children to a private primary school and they are thriving, you are unlikely to reverse that decision. If I you are seeing these numbers before making a decision, you might well make a very different decision…
Not thinking about private education, anyway?
If private school is not a consideration for you, then the best choice might be to save as much as you can towards your own ISA allowance of £20,000/year (£40,000/year in a two parent home), in addition to whatever you save towards your pension (I recommend 10-15%) and when the time comes you can decide whether you can contribute towards university or a first home or both.
The best gift you can give your kids is possibly to be independent in old age so they don’t have to worry about taking care of you. You can boot strap them onto the property ladder by letting them live at home rent free – so that they can save more for their deposit. Even without cash gifts, you will be giving your children a competitive advantage by teaching them how to handle money at an early age.
Starting to invest
Next, you need to consider what platform to use for investing and what to investing in?
If you have any personal finance questions send them to [ME] – I will answer whatever piques my fancy via a blog post.
This is a simple question, how do you make money when you have no money?
Belinda Jo W.
I LOVE this question Belinda. It’s an awesome question because so many people are probably wondering the same darn thing.
Okay, your question isn’t specifically asking about starting a business so I’ll tackle it from both a business and a career perspective too. I’ll be as broad as possible.
A lot of people need money to start a business or some other passion project. Back in the 80s my dad had very little cash, basically all he had was a credible enough business plan to make an appointment with a bank manager.
The main basis for which he got that loan was the bank manager saying, “I can see a future in your eyes so I’ll approve this loan”.
Sh!t like that doesn’t happen today.
Banks can’t lend on the basis of just believing you have great potential so they don’t lend to start-ups. Typically, they’ll only lend to a business that has three years of trading history and appears to have a reasonably stable income.
Have you heard of Sara Blakely? If not, then you’ll definitely have heard of the brand Spanx. She started that brand with $1,000 which for all intents and purposes is almost nothing.
She used that money to get a prototype made by a local US manufacturer.
She then wanted a manufacturer to partner with her: she wanted them to produce her product in the hopes of sharing in the profits.
Obviously, most suppliers gave her an outright no. Manufacturers don’t like taking entrepreneurial risks of that nature. Their business is just making stuff and they get paid upfront or based on a 30-day line of credit. The manufacturer that ultimately said yes had a daughter that convinced him it would work.
That is still possible today especially if the product to be made seems quite innovative and if a small sample run can be made without a huge financial outlay.
Her next problem was finding a big buyer. She trawled from supermarket to supermarket trying to get someone to see her.
In the end, she got her first yes by asking the buyer to come to the bathroom with her to see how Spanx worked. She put them on and the buyer was like, “I get it”.
The rest as they say is history, she now stands as one of very few self-made female BILLIONAIRES.
Her story has so many elements that just seem “lucky”, for instance, if the buyer had been male she couldn’t have just been like, “Come to the bathroom with me and I’ll show you” – can you imagine what he’d be thinking? Lol
That said, you only get lucky when you put yourself out there. Most people just let their ideas die in their head so they don’t get lucky.
Luck comes from repeated effort.
MAKING MONEY IN A JOB
Now, if you just want some money and have none, there are some key avenues you can take.
EARN MORE – GET A GOOD JOB
EARN MORE – SELF IMPROVEMENT
Here are a few ways you can improve your prospects.
The better educated you are, the more money you tend to make. Even in poorly paid jobs you can navigate yourself into higher paid posts like a management position, over time.
Every industry will have positions that make bank and roles that keep your bank account overdrawn.
If you get educated, you’ll be able to take advantage to move up.
In my case I have a BA in Economics from the University of Cambridge. I could have stopped there – most do, but I decided to become a Chartered Financial Analyst, CFA.
I’m currently self-employed but, for no particular reason, I’m doing the Certificate in Mortgage Advice & Practice (CeMAP) AND I’ve signed up for ACCA exams…what can I say, I like writing exams.
Like I said, I don’t have any specific plans for these qualifications, you could say I like collecting qualifications in the same way people like collecting, say stamps, but with all this on my CV it means I can pounce on opportunities faster than a cheetah in the Serengeti pounces on an unsuspecting wildebeest.
Don’t ask me why I think of this today; perhaps because the topic cropped up over the last few days.
Some people associate certain accents with being dumb and having such an accent can therefore reduce one’s employability.
Here in the UK, the Birmingham or Brummie accent is seen as dumb – I personally love it (see references below). In the US the Southern Accent is seen by some as dumb too and indeed some people find certain African accents dumb – sigh.
I personally like lots of accents that people hate but I’m not trying to employ you. My personal pet peeve is poor grammar.
Mix poor grammar with an accent that employers tend to be biased against and forget passing interview round one!
I have a Chinese friend who went to the extent of getting elocution lessons to neutralize her accent. I haven’t seen her in a long while so I can’t tell you if it worked.
Overall, if you think your accent could possibly be holding you back you should work on it. This could be as simple as polishing up your grammar and pronouncing words more clearly, you don’t necessarily need expensive elocution lessons.
I won’t lie to you though, I’ve considered elocution lessons myself in the past.
If we look at the c-suite of any firm we’d probably all be surprised who’s had some voice/accent coaching. Some people just want to change their tone to sound more authoritative others want to wipe out a whole accent.
Your Overall Look
Honey, I so wish it weren’t true but people do judge a book by its cover. Having polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) means I gain weight if I so much as look at cake the wrong way and it is incredibly hard to shake off.
I am not hugely overweight at all but people have no idea how hard it is for me to just stay this slightly overweight size even when my calorie intake is quite low.
This is why I wish fattism did not exist, but it does. Employers have been empirically shown to discriminate against overweight people because they view them as lazy! Reference below.
If you feel your weight could be holding you back, get your jog on.
I’ve been jogging almost daily for three months right now and I haven’t lost ANY weight. However, I feel excellent and I’m buzzing with energy.
If you, like me, struggle with weight focus on just doing regular exercise. It will make you feel more confident about your body and that confidence will shine through to other people.
Coach or Mentor
Ultimately, this is what I did to get my first well-paid job at Goldman Sachs. I was coached.
My CV was reviewed, I had practice interviews, I got feedback on what I planned to wear to my interviews and I got the job.
That job allowed me to save more and ultimately go on to buy my first property.
This is one thing people simply fail to do. I’ve coached people who think they couldn’t possibly save anything and when I delve into their finances there are literally savings that can be made everywhere.
I have so many tips on saving that I wrote a book about it a few years ago, Build Super Savings.
If you get the PDF book, I suggest you print it off and work through it diligently, from start to finish. Promise?
INVEST IN PROPERTY (aka REAL ESTATE) FIRST
I see property as a safe bet.
If you buy a property you can afford the worst case scenario is that you’ll end up with negative equity for a while; however, provided you keep up with payments you will eventually own the home outright and always have somewhere to live.
After you have one property why not get more properties to fund your retirement? Rent from tenants pays the mortgage off for you.
If you buy in a good area you will at a minimum store the value of your home because over long periods of time property keeps up with inflation.
In the best case scenario you’ll see you property price rise faster than inflation. Your equity capital will grow.
I am a huge fan of property.
It’s not a get rich quick strategy. You’ll only enjoy the maximum benefits of it in 20 to 30 years time when your mortgages are fully paid off but even before that property can bring in some extra spending cash.
If property prices rise fast you can enjoy incredible benefits much sooner but I’d invest based on at least a 10-year plan.
I started my working life off with no money. I saved enough to invest in one property and it is that property that I bought almost 10 years ago that I re-mortgaged to fund my Queen of Kinks product line.
I can talk for days when it comes to property so I created an information-packed course on how to build a property portfolio from scratch. Anyhow...
Can you think of other ways to make money? Make a comment below.
Have a business or life question you want me to answer? Please email it to me with the subject “Question”. Note that all such questions will be answered as a blog post and will be sent to my full email list.
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Your spending will always expand to match your income unless you specifically plan to live beneath your means. You can do this as a lifestyle choice or for short periods of time to save for something you really want.
Shop around to save money on the things that you buy regularly – buy in bulk, get products where they are cheapest instead of just going to your favourite shop, use coupons and take advantage of discount days at local stores.
However, there are some things that you can live without completely;that is the topic this blog.
We get so used to buying what we always buy that we don’t usually stop to contemplate what’s necessary and what isn’t. To help you think through your own shopping list I’ll go through some things my friends and I cut back on to save:
You could live in a cheaper area and save thousands immediately. I did this when I first started work. I was spending almost half what my peers were on rent just by living a little further out of the city. Of course, many of us are unwilling to compromise here so we have to look at the small stuff.
For what you get, it’s not cheap at all. I was having a chat with one of my best friends about cutting back and she said, “Can you believe it, we’ve even had to stop buying juice!”
I was like, “You were still buying juice? I stopped buying juice ages ago because it contains way too many calories. I’ll only buy it if I have guests coming.” I also find juice to be poor value for money besides being completely unnecessary for the weight conscious. Juice packs in a lot more calories than one might suspect.
We spend A LOT of money on eating out every month. I personally find it very hard to cut back because I think of it as a “treat” after a week of hard work. However, right now my husband and I have just spent a small fortune renovating a flat that we just bought so we’ll use that thought to spur us on during our financial fast in September.
To stick to our resolve we add“treat foods” to our shopping list to encourage us to eat at home. For example, buying a frozen pizza that you just stick in the oven when you feel lazy is a lot cheaper than going out for pizza. We wouldn’t normally buy this type of food because it’s not healthy but it does the job of keeping us at home when we want to eat out.
News flash: you don’t have to eat meat every day. Some people would think this is unthinkable and perhaps an utterly ridiculous suggestion but it’s true. If your partner is against this suggestion remind them that desperate times call for desperate measures.
You can also cut back by eating less meat rather than cutting it out completely. For instance, unless it’s a very small chicken I only ever eat one chicken piece, I find two to be excessive. If everyone in your home has two pieces your chicken will immediately last twice as long by enforcing a one-piece rule. The same goes for sausages and other meats. I normally cook minced meat with beans to bulk it up. Less meat means a heavier wallet and a more attractive waist line!
You could go for offal aswell. Liver, oxtail and tongue are delicious.
Body Products & Makeup
There are so many options here. If you use a range of upmarket brands explore supermarket “equivalents” to see if they work just as well. You could save a tidy fortune here.
Take a close look at what you tend to spend money and see what else you could do without. Magazines? New shoes or clothes? And so on.
“Cut back on your rent or cut back on what you spend on food but never worry about investing money in a good book.” Robin S. Sharma
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One of my friends posted a very interesting status update on Facebook:
"Why is it that some people in Malawi feel like it’s a crime to have a good life or have good things? If one wants to spend their money buying expensive shoes, so be it [it’s their money], [if they want to own a] Range Rover although they stay in a rented house [it’s their business], and if one wants to build a mansion so be it, if it makes you happy! Don’t plan other people’s lives for them! I just saw a certain post and it made me sad! Priorities differ good people!" [Text in square brackets has been translated to English (from Chichewa) for accessibility]
Although I agree with the general sentiment that people should spend in any way they want to, I personally think some spending decisions are foolish and very myopic.
Less than 60 seconds later, I happened upon this post:
Lack of Saving Culture – Biggest Challenge Facing Malawian Entrepreneurs: (says Hitesh Anadkat of First Merchant Bank, Malawi)
“In my view the biggest challenge Entrepreneurship faces in Malawi is our savings culture. Actually it is the ‘lack of savings’ culture. I would argue that if we look at the whole world, in 95% of the cases, the capital to start entrepreneurial businesses came from individual or family savings. If you have zero money, it is unlikely a bank will lend you 100% of your requirements. In almost every case you need to show seed capital.
This saving culture has to apply to families who want to establish themselves. In my culture [ethnic Indian], most of us do not spend anywhere near what we earn. After basic needs are provided for, the rest goes to saving or businesses for future generations.
When families are starting out they are very careful with their money. Typically, you will have cases where parents and three or four brothers are living under one roof to save money. This is certainly how my father grew up in India. Even though you have money, you do not spend it on new cars, or eating out, or expensive holidays. The family has to realize that if they want the family to become long term players in the business world, or want to educate their children, or feel secure in life, they have to save. They have to sacrifice short term pleasure for greater long term gains.
It is because I, my father and his father before me saved, that we had the money to start FMB (First Merchant Bank) and other businesses. We only pay a small percent of our income as dividends and the rest is saved in the company. But even out of the dividends, we save and invest most of this money.
My father bought his first Mercedes when he was 56 years old. This was second hand. At this time, he could have afforded 10 new ones. He bought his house when he was 60. He could have afforded this a long time ago, but he decided he needed money for working capital, as he did not want to spend money on interest from bank borrowings.”
Comment from the person that shared the post: I read this priceless advice over and over again. It is the kind of truth most Malawians are not ready to embrace, and that is why many Malawian families don’t have a foot in the business arena. We would rather build a mansion with five bedrooms and six toilets… and a Range Rover, a Merc and a Twincab parked outside. We lack the basic ingredient to business success – delayed gratification.
I personally was in total agreement with Hitesh because all around me I see people making what I would call shortermistic decisions. I have one Zimbabwean friend who managed to get into investment banking and with his first bonus bought a brand spanking new Mercedes Benz (while he lived in a rented flat).
Six months later he was like, “Sha, Heather, I totally regret getting that car. If I had invested that money on the Zim stock exchange I would have ten times more money right now!” As they say, hindsight is 20/20.
In his case, at least he even had the wealth to buy the car with his own money. I know many others that lease expensive cars when they don’t own the place where the sleep.
Now, I would definitely say posturing and looking good is a culture amongst Africans. We not only want to keep up with the Joneses we want to one-up them every chance we get.
Black people in general are heavily influence by hip-hop music, videos and culture where wealth and living it up is glamorized in a way that it is not in other types of music. Shows like “Cribs” and “Pimp My Ride” flaunt the good life and encourage us to spend.
I’m not even sure if I can exclude myself from the myopic crowd. I too bought a brand new Merc at 27. Yes, I did have a portfolio of 4 houses and some land but I could still have invested that money. I justified the purchase to myself: I thought I deserved a treat because I had spent five years being so abstemious and a recent personal event made me realize just how short life is but is there really any justification for such indulgence at 27. If something were to happen to me my savings would have blessed my mum and siblings – I wasn’t married at the time.
Anyhow, whilst I thought these things I also realized that on the flip side, Africans are hands-down the most laissez-faire, happy-go-lucky people I know. Given that, is it better that we accept lower levels of wealth as a group for more happiness? Can we have both?
I don’t like to make sweeping statements about a population but having grown up in Malawi and lived my adult life in the West I can agree with Hitesh the Chairman of First Merchant Bank that there is a greater lack of savings culture in Malawi and Africa in general compared to the West and especially compared to Asia – notably Japan.
Of course, I acknowledge that swathes of people in the West also live in debt; nonetheless there is a very strong culture around saving to buy a home and frequent media discussions around pensions and saving for old age – Africans especially in a rural setting talk about having children to look after them in old age...
What do you think? Will the lack of a savings culture keep African lagging behind the world?
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Heather on Wealth
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